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Identification of Barriers to Attracting and Retaining Sports Donors in the Field of Women's Sports Infrastructure Development in Isfahan Province
|Archives in Sport Management and Leadership|
|دوره 1، شماره 1، مهر 2023، صفحه 81-91 اصل مقاله (259.59 K)|
|نوع مقاله: Original|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22108/jhs.2023.137232.1017|
|Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran|
|Considering the importance of sports and physical activity for women and the necessity of involvement of economic structures to advance the goals in this area, the present research was conducted with the aim of identification of obstacles of attracting and retaining sports donors in the field of women's sports infrastructure development in Isfahan province. This research is an applied research and it is mixed (qualitative-quantitative) in nature. The method of data collection in the qualitative part was the opinion of experts using the Delphi method, and in the quantitative part, a researcher-made questionnaire was used. The statistical population of the research in the quantitative part included all active benefactors of Isfahan province, members of the faculty of sports management and sociology and Islamic sciences, and managers of endowment and charity offices in Isfahan province. In the benefactors and managers section, the available cases were selected and in the faculty members section, the selection was done in a simple random manner. Barriers were identified first based on library studies and then based on the opinions of experts (Delphi method). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the contribution of each barrier. Based on the obtained results, the fit of the model of barriers to attracting and retaining sports donors in the field of women’s sports infrastructure development in Isfahan province was confirmed with five managerial, economic, cultural, legal and informational barriers and finally, the proposed strategies were presented in order to remove the obstacles.|
|Benevolent؛ Donor؛ Sport Development؛ Women’ s Sport|
Since the 1970s, sport has assumed an increasing role in the globalization of business and public events, with sports participants, capital and labor all over the world (Zhang et al., 2018). The importance and popularity of sports in the last 50 years has created a new industry called the sports industry, and in the last three decades, a significant growth has been observed in this industry (Nuseir, 2020). As an important part of the national economy, the sports industry plays a major role in adjusting the economic structure, stimulating economic growth, expanding employment channels, and promoting the development of related industries (Zhao, 2022). Sports economy is a broad field that has a close relationship with other economic sectors (Syyed Ameri et al., 2009). Today, the economic activities of countries are generally formed in three sectors: private (first sector), government (second sector) and charity organizations (third sector). In the meantime, the third sector of the world economy is expanding and becoming more important day by day. The voluntary motivation based on self-sacrifice and altruism of third sector institutions makes the economy more efficient than private institutions, and its lower costs compared to the public sector, in providing social and non-profit services, causes the increasing attention of societies to this section. The third part of the economy includes altruistic interactions and includes organizations and institutions that 1) are formed and maintained by a group of people and are set up voluntarily and without regard for personal benefit; 2) People control and manage it; 3) any benefit and profit from the activities are spent towards the set goals, and personal profit and organizational benefit are not considered (Taheri Demneh and Heidari Darani, 2018). Donors' motives can be evaluated in dimensions such as philanthropy, showing commitment, affiliation, recognition (Ko et al., 2014), good feeling, perceived effectiveness of financial aid (Filo et al., 2019); Meanwhile, religious beliefs lead to a greater desire for benevolent forgiveness (Kim and Walker, 2013), and this is very important in our country.
In most societies, benefactors have helped the needy in various ways; in such a way that some of the most important universities in the world such as Harvard and Oxford are endowments and continue to benefit from the help of benefactors (Afroozeh et al., 2018). In Iran, until the Qajar era, the desire of the people and kings was more to build religious schools, and after learning about western schools, they showed a desire to build western-style schools. Similarly, Muzaffaredin king dedicated one of Iran's mines to provide fuel for schools (Shah Hosseini, 2010). In addition, in the Islamic society, the philosophy of promoting charity and the institution of devotion in Islam have always been considered as a good tradition, to fill the gaps and solve the cultural, social and economic needs (Afroozeh et al., 2018). Despite the rich culture of devotion in the country, the position of sports in this field is not satisfactory; In this regard, according to the results of Hasan Shahi et al.'s research (2017), only 4.1% of benefactors in the field of sports have a history of philanthropy and this is while 43.7% of the benefactors have contributed to the mosque and 14.6% have contributed to the construction of the school.
Studies show that charity and social responsibility have been the main pillars of professional sports for more than 50 years (Abuin-Penas et al., 2020). Filo et al. (2010) state that due to the potential in sports and sports events, in some countries, many charitable organizations try to gain more popularity by associating themselves with sports, and at the same time, Collect more donations. Sports and related activities are very attractive for collecting donations and voluntary charity work; because it provides an opportunity to participate in two important things (sports and charity affairs) at the same time (Wooda et al., 2010). Nowadays, many efforts are made to bring sports and sports events to the attention of benefactors; even, if the sport is used to meet other needs of the society (Bunds et al., 2016). Inoue et al. (2017) claimed that the social effects of sports events that have emerged with the support of benefactors and charities can develop social capital, increase identity, collective pride, and finally, promote sports, health and well-being (Ino et al., 2017). The dedication and participation of benefactors in sports can be interpreted in different parts, such as in the form of the development of sports spaces.
Achieving desirable results in the field of attracting and persuading donors to develop sports infrastructure requires extensive planning based on scientific research and adaptation of programs to the basic needs of society. In the meantime, it is clear to everyone that it is not possible to achieve this without considering women who make up more than half of the country's population. Among the effects of physical activity on the physical aspect of women, we can also mention the effect of exercise during pregnancy. As the research results of Filipec and Matijević (2022) showed, regular exercise leads to specific adaptation processes of body systems, which improves the physical and mental health of pregnant women and has a positive effect on her fetus. One of the most important positive psychological consequences of exercise includes freshness and mental relaxation, increasing self-confidence and prevention of depression in women. In this regard results of the research by Murphy (2021) and colleagues showed that the effect of physical activity on reducing depression in women was greater than in men. Although the effects of physical activity on physical structure and its psychological effects in women are not less than in men, it seems that in our country, due to the existence of restrictions and inhibiting factors, women face a serious problem of inactivity (Salimi et al., 2022).
Looking at the history of sports in the world, we can see that throughout history, sports have always been considered a male domain, and its standards and values have all been formed based on men, which are influenced by the culture and social capital of people in societies. Among the various forms of discrimination in women's sports in the world and in Iran, including wage inequality, inequality of available sports facilities for the promotion of female athletes, and the allocation of a low percentage of the sports budget to women can be mentioned (Nazari Azad et al., 2020). The lack of clarity of duties and the lack of clarity of the position of women's sports in the field of sports management, as well as not valuing women's special sports venues and not supporting financial sponsors have slowed down the progress in women's sports (Pourgachi et al., 2017). The state of women's sports and their participation in sports reflects the political and social status of women in the country; therefore, the policies adopted regarding women's sports have global implications for the Islamic Republic of Iran, while the results of internal research show the fact that limited companies are willing to invest in women's sports (Jamaat and Ehsani 2011). This shows the need for targeted management and planning in this field, considering the special conditions and characteristics of women's sports. In this regard, one of the areas that require special planning and supervision in the women's sector is the issue of investment and budget entry in this area. But there are many problems in women's sports; In this context, we can mention the political problems, economic obstacles, the government's policy of not prioritizing the participation of women in sports activities and the lack of proper alignment of the media with women's sports (Pourgachi et al., 2017), which All these things can affect the willingness to invest in this field.
Strelize (2005) considers the role of television shows in attracting financial sponsors essential and believes that the wider the television and satellite broadcasts of sports competitions at the national and international levels, the more sponsors will be attracted (Seyed Bagheri and Sharifian, 2017). This is despite the fact that many research studies in the country have shown that male and female athletes are covered and treated differently by the media (Pourgachi et al., 2017). Sociologists in the field of sports say that although the media has provided opportunities for women to be more active, women athletes are much less noticed in terms of media coverage and researchers have reached the same results about media coverage of women's sports (Hamidpour and Shetab Booshehri, 2015). Ehsani et al. (2008) investigated the causes of sponsors not supporting the professional sports of women in Isfahan city. The results of this research showed that the companies do not reach their goals in supporting women's sports, including increasing the sale of goods and services, creating a suitable image of the company in the public mind, competing with other companies, and expanding the number of sales (Ehsani et al. 2008).
In most developed countries, charitable organizations are considered a very important part and often engage in activities that governments are unwilling and unable to do and the private sector does not have the necessary motivation to enter the field of such activities. Considering the problems that women have to attract capital in sports, one of the areas that can help them is dedication and charity. Donors' goals are mainly in line with social responsibility and non-economic benefits, which justifies supporting women's sports considering its valuable results (Taheri Demneh and Heydari Darani, 2018). Considering the many obstacles of women's sports, especially in attracting financial resources, sufficient planning and monitoring should be done to achieve the benefits of sports for this segment of the society through sports donors. Therefore, in this research, the researcher seeks to answer the question of what are the obstacles to attract and retain sports donors in line with the development of women's sports infrastructure in Isfahan province and finally based on the obtained results, the proposed solutions are mentioned.
According to the nature of the required information, this research was conducted with a combined (qualitative-quantitative) method. Delphi method was used in the qualitative part and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the quantitative part. In the first step, library studies through the review of scientific and documentary sources including articles, books and authoritative sites using key phrases including financial support in sports, attracting financial resources in sports, financial support for women's sports, endowment in sports, obstacles to endowment in sports, barriers to financial support in women's sports and barriers to the development of women's sports were conducted to identify barriers effective in maintaining and attracting sports donors in order to develop the infrastructure of women's sports. In the second stage, the Delphi technique was used for theoretical consensus about the barriers and the items related to each obstacle.
The members of the Delphi panel were 12 professors of the faculty of sports management and sociology. The statistical population of the research to answer the questions of the questionnaires includes all active benefactors of Isfahan province, members of the faculty of sports management and sociology, and managers of endowment and charity offices in Isfahan province. Due to the lack of accurate information on the total number of people in the mentioned communities, the sample size was determined based on the table of Karjesi and Morgan, and in this table, the introduced sample for the unknown community is 384 people. In the benefactors and managers section, the available cases were selected and in the faculty members section, the selection was done in a simple random manner in each field.
Based on the results of the Delphi technique, a research questionnaire was developed. The content and form validity of the questionnaire was examined and confirmed based on the professors' opinion. At this stage, based on the opinion of the professors of 2 items, which were conceptually related to the obstacles of attracting and maintaining financial resources in women's sports infrastructure, their concepts were changed specifically in relation to the obstacles of attracting and maintaining financial resources of sports donors. Reliability was examined and confirmed through Cronbach's alpha. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was obtained as 0.85, which indicates the optimal reliability of the questionnaires. Based on this, the research questionnaire consists of 5 indicators (barriers), including managerial barriers (5 items), cultural barriers (5 items), informational barriers (5 items), legal barriers (5 items) and economic barriers (4 items) and in general 24 items were compiled. 100 questionnaires were distributed manually and questionnaires were sent online to 350 people, and finally 385 questionnaires were used for data analysis. It was necessary for the respondents to express their opinion regarding importance of each item in a 5-point Likert scale (from very much to very little).
Finally, confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the contribution of each barrier. SPSS 22 and AMOS 22 software were used for data analysis.
The output of the Delphi technique implementation process after 3 stages of referencing questionnaires including 24 items in the form of 5 Barriers (management (5 items), cultural (5 items), informational (5 items), legal (5 items) and economic (4 items) was identified, the results of which are presented in Table (1).
Table 1- Barriers to attracting and retaining sports donors in the field of women's sports infrastructure development
Before conducting factor analysis, it is necessary to ensure the appropriateness of the number of samples and also the relationship between variables for analysis. For this purpose, two tests "Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin” (KMO) and Bartlett's test were used. Kaiser (1974) recommends a bare minimum of 0.5 and the value between 0.5 and 0.7 are mediocre, value between 0.7 and 0.8 are good, value between 0.8 and 0.9 are great and value between 0.9 and above are superb (Hutcheson & Sofroniou, 1999). In relation to the Bartlett test, if there is no significance, there is a possibility that the matrix Correlation is inappropriate for analysis. Table (2) shows the results of the KMO test and the Bartlett test.
Table 2- KMO index and Bartlett's test
According to the results presented in table (2), the numbers of samples as well as the relationship between the variables are confirmed for factor analysis. The indicators related to model fit are presented in table (3).
Table 3- Indicators related to model fit
Examining the obtained values according to the acceptable range of each index in the table (3) shows that the obtained values are within the acceptable range in relation to all the indices, so the fit of the model is confirmed. The factor analysis model of the barriers to attract and retain sports donors in the field of women's sports infrastructure development can be seen in Figure (1).
Figure 1- Second-order confirmatory factor analysis model in standard mode
Conflicts of Interest
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