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Educational Need Assessment of Sport Science Units for Students of Sama Colleges in West Azerbaijan Province
|Archives in Sport Management and Leadership|
|دوره 1، شماره 1، مهر 2023، صفحه 92-102 اصل مقاله (319.12 K)|
|نوع مقاله: Original|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22108/jhs.2023.137081.1013|
|Mohammadamin Sayadi* 1؛ Negin Ahmadi2|
|1Payame noor university|
|The aim of this research is analyzing educational need Assessment of sport science units for students of Sama colleges in west Azerbaijan province. This research performs a descriptive and mixed analysis (qualitative with interviews and quantitative in the field). The research includes a researcher-made questionnaire based on a five-point Likert scale with reliability and validity confirmation. The statistical population consisted of 220 students who were about to graduate and sports science instructors of Sama colleges in West Azerbaijan province. The sampling of this research was 140 people by random cluster method and based on Morgan's table. Data were analyzed in meaningful level (p≤0.05) by means of Whitney's U and Friedman tests. The results showed that the social-emotional needs, among all research needs, are most important. Also, no significant differences were found between motor physical needs and social-emotional needs, but significant differences were found between the Cognitive-scientific skill-sport’s needs, facilities- equipment needs. Based on our preference outcomes we must clarify the most prior output expected of the current research, which should be considered strategies for development of qualitative and quantitative in this field.|
|Educational Facilities؛ Educational Need؛ Sport Science|
In today's era, there is no doubt that those who have a high ability to improve the higher education system will be more successful in benefiting from the situation of growth, development and increasing competition to ensure self-sufficiency in all sciences and gradually the social, economic, political and quality of life distance They become deeper with others, and for this reason, striving for development, excellence and success in the field of education is a very necessary step (Mohammadi, 2017).
On the other hand, the first step in designing any educational program is identifying the needs. The need is the gap between the existing reality and the desired conditions and is accessible, necessary or useful to satisfy and realize a goal and should be determined and measured based on its specific criteria and standards (Sayadi et al. 2021). Needs assessment is the application of techniques that can be used to gather appropriate information about needs and obtain the patterns of needs and desires of individuals, groups and society (Rezayi et al. 2011). Without conducting a proper needs assessment, it is not possible to properly set the goals of the program, allocate the necessary resources, and provide appropriate views and methods to meet these needs (Goldstein, 1996). As the needs are identified, then decisions are made about how to allocate resources (Altschuld & Kumar 2020). In fact, needs assessment is the identification of these needs, needs analysis and needs creation based on the comprehensive model (Fathi and Ojargah 2003). With needs assessment, it is determined where the problem is and which part of the problem needs which type of intervention (Sayadi et al. 2014).
Meanwhile, the educational need is the gap and the difference between the abilities, knowledge and tendencies of the learner or learners at the beginning of the education and its favorable situation at the end of the education, which is done to resolve this gap and difference through the education process (Ramzaninazhad et al. 2010). The educational need can be compared to a situation in which there is a difference between "what is" and "what should be" and it refers to educational methods, information sources, types of materials and educational tools and materials. (Adkli 2017).
In the meantime, one of the main and very prominent sub-axes in the educational system of any country, which always follows a lot of political, economic, social and cultural growth and development, is the sports position of the countries, which has overshadowed the acquisition of the international image of the countries and continuously, it should be given special attention in the education program and education system of every country. In various researches, it has been discussed about the needs assessment of sports education and its various aspects, and it has been examined from different angles of educational needs assessment in the field of sports sciences.
Sayadi (2021), in a comprehensive research entitled "Identifying and Analyzing the Most Important Empowerment Indicators of Sports Science Education,” and with an emphasis on modern teaching methods, showed that the most important influencing indicators in the current research include: scientific honor, educational management system, factors related to instructors, Educational content, educational planning factors, educational facilities and space, factors related to students and finally educational evaluation system. In the research of the Mondalizadeh et al. (2019), on entrepreneurial educational needs of the sports science curriculum, result showed that the educational status of entrepreneurship in the sports science curriculum in Central University was unfavorable from the students' point of view. The priority of entrepreneurial educational needs is related to the structural, internship and teamwork skills needs. The results of the Bitew study in (2022) showed that continuous assessment of educational program assists instructors for identify problems; motivates learners to work hard through the academic year; enhances self-esteem of learners; students identify their strengths and weaknesses. The study concluded that continuous assessment motivates learners not only to participate actively but also creates an opportunity to practice the skill rather than observing the skill; provides learners with opportunities to master the skills without the need for feedback from other and identify their strength and weakness; moreover, student performance/skills were improved over a period of time due to continuous repetition of skills. Sortwell et al (2022) in their research “the Advancing Sports Science and Physical Education Research Through a Shared Understanding of the Term Motor Performance Skills: A Scoping Review with Content Analysis” show that defining ‘motor performance skills’ as the basis for sport science should be based on educational planning and the need to revise the curriculum and structures in order to develop entrepreneurship.
Also, the necessity of sports facilities and equipment has been recommended in the researches of Shabani Bahar (2006), Mirzayi (2009), Mahmoudi (2010), Ramzaninezhad (2010) and Reid et al. (2013). Also, the necessity of cognitive and knowledge needs has been emphasized in the researches of Moshref Javadi (2000), Ramezaninezhad (2010) and Kiani (2011), also providing online resources, sharing best practices, providing a blueprint for developing a curriculum (John, 2017), as well as the necessity of skill-sports needs in the researches of Moshref Javadi (2000), Ramezaninezhad. (2010), Kiani (2011), Strand (1992) and Reid et al. (2013) are shown.
On the other hand, because in the present research, we examine the different dimensions of this needs assessment, along with effectiveness of the educational courses in Sama college for the first time, the first step is educational planning, determination, identification and prioritization of needs that, if properly planned and carried out, will be an important and essential measure for the effectiveness of education and improvement and consequently the effectiveness of Sama college. Despite the fact that many years have passed since the education of students in sports science in Sama college inside, and despite the urgent need we have for accurate and principled educational needs assessment in this field, there is not still a comprehensive plan and similar research in order to provide a programs policy of this field. In this plan, the training of sports science students should be such that after graduation, they can serve for teams, schools, organizations and society within the limits of their powers and abilities. Considering the importance of the subject and the importance of the field of sports science as an interdisciplinary field that has many of its topics and trends based on other fields, and on the other hand, considering that in Sama college, the field of sports science is one of the most popular fields offered in the associate level and many for-profit and non-profit, government and private institutions in a tight competition to attract students of this field, and since the students themselves are also quite attracted to the field due to its importance, and due to its intellectual and physical attractiveness effective and optimal educational planning in this field in Sama college and accurate assessment of the educational needs of this field is essential. On the other hand, considering the important and constructive role that Sama college can play in the training of students specializing in the field of sports science and the importance of the educational courses that they should take, the main issue of this research is to find out what the educational requirements and needs for the physical education field in Sama college are, and to see if there is a difference between the teachers' and students' opinions.
This research was undertaken using descriptive and mixed analysis and includes a researcher-made questionnaire based on a five-point Likert scale. There are four Sama colleges in this province and the population was 220 peoples that consisted of 142 students who were about to graduate and 78 sports science instructors of Sama colleges in West Azerbaijan province. The sampling of this research was 140 people by random cluster method and based on Morgan's table. Data were analyzed in meaningful level (p≤0.05) in means of Whitney's U and Friedman tests. The sampling of this research was based on stratified random method (the ratio and percentage of people in each sample is proportional to the ratio and percentage of people in its community) based on Morgan's table, there were 136 people and the researcher distributed 150 questionnaires due to the possibility of dropping and incomplete returned questionnaires and finally, 140 completed and analyzable questionnaires were delivered. The researcher's questionnaire consists of several parts, the first part includes questions related to personal characteristics: gender, age, marital status, educational certificate and educational Experience (teaching or studying) and the second part of the questionnaire is valued with 66 questions on a 5-point Likert scale from very low (1) to very high (5). Questions in 5 sections include: physical-motor needs index with 7 questions, skill-sports index with 13 questions, cognitive-scientific index with 19 questions, social-emotional index with 13 questions and finally, facilities index - There were devices with 14 questions. It should be noted that these components and the questions related to them are taken from the presented course headings and charts, the approved practical and theoretical units of the associate's degree course, the educational equipment needed for teaching sports science in the SAMA organization.
The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by using the corrective comments of 12 expert professors. Cronbach's alpha test was used to check reliability. The results of Cronbach's alpha test on 30 people from the sample showed an acceptable reliability of 0.78. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the dimensions of physical-motor, skill-sports, cognitive-scientific, emotional-social and facility-equipment needs are 0.71, 0.78, 0.82, 0.77 and 0. 83. After collecting the statistical information, the data will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. In the descriptive statistics section, frequencies, frequency percentages, mean, standard deviation, and descriptive graphs were examined, and in the inferential section, Due to the fact that the data distribution was non-normal, non-parametric tests were used and educational needs were prioritized using Friedman's rank test. Also, Whitney's U-Mann test was used to compare the opinions of specialists and students.
According to the descriptive findings of the research, in the following table are shown the state of distribution of the highest and lowest frequency and percentage of demographic variables including age, gender, service history and marital status.
Table 1. Demographic information of research
Table 2- The average status of the main research variables
According to the descriptive statistics in Table 1, the average of social-emotional needs with an average of 4.13 ± 0.7 is estimated as the highest need among research needs.
Table 3- ranking of physical-motor needs
Table number 2 shows the results of Friedman's rank test. As it is clear in the table, the chi value is equal to 11.24 and the significance level is greater than 5% error, which shows that there is no significant difference between the physical-motor needs.
Table 4- ranking of skill-sports needs
Table No. 3 shows the results of Friedman's rank test. As it is clear in the table, the value of chi is 77.88 and the significance level is less than 5% error, which shows that there is a significant difference between skill-sport’s needs. According to the table, from the point of view of the research sample (students and teachers) in the skill-sports factors section, swimming training with an average rating of 9.12 is the most important skill-sports need, followed by physical fitness training with an average rating of 8.88 and volleyball training with an average rating of 8.05. The next ones were located.
Table 5- ranking of cognitive-scientific needs
As it is clear in the table, the value of chi is twice 164.48 and the significance level is less than 5% error, which shows that there is a significant difference between cognitive-scientific needs. According to the findings, pathology, corrective movements with an average rank of 13.34 are in the first priority, principles of coaching and exercise science, as well as education and sports ethics are in the second and third ranks with an average rank of 12.51 and 11.95, respectively.
Table 6- ranking of social-emotional needs
As it is clear in Table 5, the value of Chi is equal to 15.03 and the significance level is greater than 5% error, which shows that there is no significant difference between social-emotional needs.
Table 7- Ranking of facilities and equipment need
It shows a value equal to 71.56 and the significance level is less than 5% error, which means there is a significant difference between the facilities-equipment needs. Among them, swimming pool and sauna are in the first place with an average rating of 9.01, all types of balls are in the second and third places with an average rating of 8.82 and the gym with an average rating of 8.39.
Table 8- Ranking of educational needs
According to Table 7, the chi value is equal to 27.95 and the acceptable level of significance is 0.001, which shows that there is a significant difference between educational needs. According to the table of social-emotional needs with an average rank of 3.82 were in the first rank, facility-equipment needs were in the second rank with an average rank of 3.05 and physical-movement needs were in the third rank with an average rank of 3.02.
Table 9- Comparison of teachers' and students' views based on educational needs
The results of Table No. 8 showed that there is a significant difference in skill-sports needs and physical-movement needs between the teachers' point of view and the students' point of view, but this difference was not significant in the needs of scientific-cognitive, emotional-social and equipment-opportunity needs.
Table 10- Ranking of educational needs from the point of view of teachers
As it is clear in Table 9, the chi value is equal to 15.63, which shows that there is a significant difference between the educational needs according to the teachers' point of view. Teachers believe that cognitive-scientific needs with an average rating of 3.78 were in the first place, social-emotional needs with an average rating of 3.56 were in the second place, and facility-equipment needs were in the third place with an average rating of 3.19.
Table 11- Ranking of educational needs from the view of students
As it is clear in Table 10, the chi value is equal to 32.39, which shows that there is a significant difference between the educational needs from the students' point of view. According to the table from the students' point of view: social-emotional needs with an average rating of 3.95 were in the first place, physical movement needs were in the second place with an average rating of 3.45 and facility-equipment needs were in the third place with an average rating of 2.99.
According to the obtained data, it was found that there is no significant difference between the physical-motor needs. In the section of physical-motor needs, including speed and agility exercises, movements related to flexibility (stretching), basic movements (running, walking, etc.), balance and coordination exercises, general endurance and aerobic exercises, cardiovascular exercises, there is no significant difference in muscular strength and endurance and finally the exercises to return to the initial state (recovery). It means that all the components are almost equally important and no special priority and ranking was found in the needs of this area. Perhaps the reason for the lack of difference between physical-motor needs is that in the field of physical-motor skills, one should pay attention to all sports skills and exercises and avoid one-sided and multi-dimensional views, because the existence of all these skills in the field of sports science is required for most sports fields. For example, in football or volleyball units, all of the factors and skills of strength, endurance, agility, flexibility, balance, or recovery should be taken into account at the same time, and separating the importance of these items does not seem logical, because at any moment one of the above factors may be necessary and it is not possible to state a specific order in this matter or to ignore a skill.
The analysis of other data indicates that there is a significant difference between the skill-sports needs of the sport science courses of the students of Sama college in West Azerbaijan province. This finding is consistent with the research results of Moshref Javadi (2000), Ramezaninezhad (2010), Rezaei (2011), Kiani (2012), Strand (1992) and Reid et al. (2013). From the point of view of the research sample (students and teachers), in the skill-sports factor section, swimming training is the most important skill-sports need, and after this the physical fitness training and finally volleyball training was in the next ranks. The existence of sports attractions is a necessary condition for a desire to pursue a particular discipline, and the possibility of easy access to these facilities is one of the most important educational factors. The presence of rich sports attractions in swimming, physical fitness and volleyball can create a sense of importance and desire for them. On the other hand, among most of the sports fields, swimming and volleyball fields are more interesting in the research sample because of their sense of excitement, fun, and less injuries, which also require proper physical fitness, and it seems that these fields, compared to other fields, have more fans and thus should be paid more attention to in the educational aspects as well. Therefore, in order to develop sports science education in this dimension, more and more up-to-date training should be considered.
Other results of the research showed that there is a significant difference between the cognitive-scientific needs of sport science courses of students of Sama college in West Azerbaijan province. According to the findings, pathology and corrective movements are in the first priority, coaching principles and training science, as well as education and sports ethics are in the second and third ranks. This finding confirms some findings of Moshref Javadi (2000), Ramezaninezhad (2010) and Kayani (2012). Because different courses are offered in an educational course and each course includes a special discussion, therefore, in each course, a series of course resources are more important than the other courses. The first step to achieve the goals in the curriculum is to choose the appropriate educational content. Today among the topics that are heavily emphasized, learning of “how to think and how to learn" and "what should be learned" are given less importance. While in the world of learning, how to learn is more important and it is not advisable to separate and distance how to learn from what to learn, though it can be said that what we prepare with the intention of teaching or how to learn is the content of the curriculum. In the field of sports science, due to the presence of many practical units, first of all, students should have sufficient knowledge of the methods of preventing sports injuries, the science of correct and fundamental movements, and then be able to use the principles of effective treatment in the event of a sports injury to be observed sooner and not to be exposed to more serious and worse injuries. Subsequently, it is necessary for these students to be aware of the principles of the science of coaching and daily practice, because most of these people will be the coaches of teams in various disciplines in the future, and having a team at any level requires an ever-increasing awareness of the science of practice and coaching. Finally, it is necessary to mention that because the essence of sports is intertwined with the category of ethics from the beginning of sports to this day, strengthening the knowledge of this class with the spirit of self-restraint, humility and bravery and sports ethics at the peak of physical fitness and high levels of sports championship is vital and unavoidable.
Other results from the obtained data showed that there is no significant difference between social-emotional needs. That is, from the point of view of the current research sample; In the social-emotional needs section, including fresh and healthy appearance, having fun and enjoying, participating in sports competitions, social interaction and being together, experiencing success, gaining self-esteem, etc., there is no significant difference and it was no priority and ranking for these particular needs. Perhaps the reason for the lack of difference between physical-motor needs is that the components of social-emotional needs in the field of sports science, including the need to look fresh and healthy, a sense of belonging or socialization in sports or through sports, to the dimension of sports success, respect and self-actualization should always be considered in all situations, and separating their importance undermines the nature of this discipline. Therefore, the existence of all these factors in the field of sports science is required for most students, and it is not possible to state a specific order or ignore a specific need in this field.
Also, the results showed that there is a significant difference between the facilities-equipment needs. Among them, swimming pool and sauna are in the first place, all kinds of balls and gym are in the second and third places. This finding is consistent with the results of Shabani Bahar (2006), Mirzayi (2009), Mahmoudi (2010), Ramezaninezhad (2010) and Reid et al. (2013). Because different units are offered in a sports science course and most of them include special practical activities, therefore the educational facilities and equipment should be planned. Providing a safe and healthy environment for the implementation of physical education units is very important (Vahdani, et al, 2021). The successful implementation of an educational course in this field requires available resources and educational hardware facilities. At the same time, the educational environment should be in a favorable condition according to the sports field. The standards consisting of the sports place are related to the relevant field, ventilation, light, disturbing sounds, health condition, suitable temperature, appearance condition, suitable atmosphere, etc. In the meantime, the existence of water sports facilities such as equipped swimming pools to carry out sports activities both from the educational and recreational aspects is one of the basic priorities of any academic environment because it has always been associated with the young generation and the existence of these fun places increases the vitality and educational quality will have a double impact. In the end, it should be kept in mind that for high physical fitness, which is the need of students in this field at any stage of their education, the existence of gymnasiums in the educational environment is a matter whose importance is not hidden from anyone, and in this regard, it should be one of the fundamental priorities for teaching this field.
Other results of the research showed that there is a significant difference between the educational needs of sports science courses of students of Sama college in West Azerbaijan province from the point of view of teachers and students. According to the results: social-emotional needs were in the first place, facilities-equipment needs were in the second place and physical-movement needs were in the third place, and it was consistent with the results of Ramezaninezhad's research (2010). Therefore, the priority of educational needs is based on the perspective of the general sample of the research: emotional-social, facility-equipment, physical-motor, cognitive-scientific, and skill-sports educational needs, and for educational planning to achieve the intended goals, long-term and short-term measures should be undertaken based on the research results.
The purpose of educational needs assessment is to identify performance requirements or specific educational needs in order to help direct resources to areas that are more important, that is, needs are considered that are closely related to the satisfaction of educational goals and activities and improve productivity and produce quality output. Most of the success of sports science course programs in realizing the educational goals, especially the qualitative and quantitative development of this field and accordingly the scientific and practical burden on its graduates requires providing the necessary related facilities. Because these needs have a special priority and all the desired facilities and needs should be provided as soon as possible, otherwise they will have a negative effect on the overall performance and efficiency of education in this field. In this research, according to the general view of the research sample, it was found that the priority of educational needs assessment of the field of sports science is: emotional-social, facilities-equipment, physical-motor, cognitive-scientific and skill-sports educational needs. Also, detailed solutions were determined in which for the education of sports science, one should give equal importance to the components of social-emotional needs and refuse to give importance to one need and trivialize other different needs, training should be done on the effective factors in better physical fitness of students and providing the necessary scientific information in this field or introducing reliable scientific sources. In different sports, not merely considering the specific skill is more important than other skills, because this ignores other skills in the study field of sports science and it is contradicting with the results of the present research. Finally, in the unit teaching of this field, more focus should be placed on the corrective movements and pathology units as well as the principles of coaching and exercise science units.
Conflicts of Interest
There is no potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
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