See, for example: Information for Ohio State University Students, Faculty and Staff, The Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center; President Eisgruber Updates University on Next Steps Regarding COVID-19 to Ensure Health and Well-Being of the Entire Community, Princeton University; and Everett Community College.
 Coronavirus and Higher Education Resources, Bryan Alexander blog, 2020.
 J. Zimmerman, Coronavirus and the Great Online- Learning Experiment, Chronicle of Higher Education, 2020.
 L. Czerniewicz, What We Learnt from ‘Going Online’ during University Shutdowns in South Africa, PhilOnEdTech, 2020.
 Teaching, Merriam-Webster.
 D. Peixoto Olo, L. Correia and M. da Conceição Rego, The Main Challenges of Higher Education Institutions in the 21st Century: A Focus on Entrepreneurship, in Examining the Role of Entrepreneurial Universities in Regional Development, eds, Ana Dias Daniel, Aurora A. C. Teixeira, and Miguel Torres Preto (Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2020): 1–23.
 R. M. Branch and T. A. Dousay, Survey of Instructional Design Models, Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT), 2015.
 B. Means, M. Bakia and Robert Murphy, Learning Online: What Research Tells Us about Whether, When and How, New York: Routledge, 2014.
 Robert M. Bernard, Philip C. Abrami, Eugene Borokhovski, C. Anne Wade, Rana M. Tamim, Michael A. Surkes, and Edward Clement Bethel, ”A Meta-Analysis of Three Types of Interaction Treatments in Distance Education”, Review of Educational Research 79, no. 3 (2009): 1,243–89.
 L. Davies and D. Bentrovato, Understanding Education’s Role in Fragility, Synthesis of Four Situational Analyses of Education and Fragility: Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Liberia, International Institute for Educational Planning, (2011).
 For an explanation of method, media, and mode in online learning, see J. Thomas Head, B. B. Lockee and K. M. Oliver, Method, Media, and Mode: Clarifying the Discussion of Distance Education Effectiveness, Quarterly Review of Distance Education 3 no. 3 (2002) 261–68.
 See UDL On Campus.
 D. W. Surry and D. Ensminger, What’s Wrong with Media Comparison Studies?, Educational Technology, 41 no. 4 (2001).
 B. Lockee, M. Moore and J. Burton, Old Concerns with New Distance Education Research, EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 24 no. 2 (2001) 60–68.
 M. Moore, B. Lockee and J. Burton, Measuring Success: Evaluation Strategies for Distance Education, EDUCAUSE Quarterly 25 no. 1 (2002) 20–26.
 D. L. Stufflebeam and G. Zhang, The CIPP Evaluation Model: How to Evaluate for Improvement and Accountability, New York: Guilford Publications, 2017.
 For a discussion of institutions moving to pass/fail in response to COVID-19, see Allison Stanger, Make All Courses Pass/Fail Now, Chronicle of Higher Education, 2020.
 For information about issues with student evaluation of instruction, see Shana K. Carpenter, A. E. Witherby and S. K. Tauber, On Students’(Mis) judgments of Learning and Teaching Effectiveness, Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, (2020).
 Guidance for Interruptions of Study Related to Coronavirus (COVID-19), Federal Student Aid, Information for Financial Aid Professionals (IFAP), 2020.
 E. Johnson, As Fires Rage, More Campuses Close, InsideHigherEd, 2019; Jenni Fink, Florida Universities Cancelling Classes, Closing Campus Ahead of Potential Category 4 Hurricane Dorian, Newsweek, 2019; and Perry Samson, The Coronavirus and Class Broadcasts, EDUCAUSE Review, 2020.